What could cause lower back and pelvic pain – how to ease it
The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a joint found in the pelvic region of the body. This joint is framed by the iliac bone (the wings on the pelvic girdle) and the sacrum (a triangular bone in the lower back formed from fused vertebrae and situated between the two hip bones of the pelvis). In addition, there are 35 muscles that are connected to this iliac bone and the sacrum, and in association with the fascia (a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs) and ligament provide motion and stability of the legs and the trunk. The SIJ can be the cause of lower limb, lower back and pelvic pain. In the US, there is an increased prevalence of lower back pain (LBP) and its related cost which is also seen in the rest of the world. In Europe, people aged between 30 and 60 years are facing LBP due to a sedentary lifestyle where most part of their day is spent in working in front of a computer and lesser time is spent on practising a sport.
Kurosawa, Murakami, and Aizawa (2014) had stated in their study that due to the lack of research about the SIJ pain originating from ligaments in the back, this pain would mostly go unnoticed. Due to this, the consumption of painkillers to treat this LBP or pelvic pain, especially in the US and Europe, has been very high, even with chronic pain conditions. Manchikanti et al. (2014) have demonstrated that people after a first attack of LBP, would tend to experience further episodes of LBP in the following years. This is an important issue, because it increases the health care costs and makes the person less productive and in a position to not be able to attend work due to the uncontrollable pain.
There is a need to increase the prevention of every potential pain generator for low back or pelvic pain, thus to reduce the potential harm provided by the chronic pain condition that such ligaments in the back (SIJs) can provide. Physicians, osteopaths, chiropractors, and physical therapists need to assess the posterior (SIJs) ligaments when doing the low back and pelvic assessment during a diagnosis.
Another support to relieve the pain in the SIJ could be carrying an elastic brace below the lower back and above the pelvis and the SIJs.
Kurosawa, D., Murakami, E., & Aizawa, T. (2014). Referred pain location depends on the affected section of the sacroiliac joint. European Spine Journal, 24(3), 521-527. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-014-3604-4
Manchikanti, L., Singh, V., Falco, F. J., Benyamin, R. M., & Hirsch, J. A. (2014). Epidemiology of low back pain in adults. Neuromodulation, 17 (Suppl 2), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/ner.12018